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Arabian Plate Sequence Stratigraphy

Arabian Plate Sequence Stratigraphy is the first publication to present a modern sequence stratigraphic review of the entire Arabian Plate stratigraphic succession, extending from the Mediterranean to the Gulf of Aden, and from the Red Sea to the Zagros suture. Biostratigraphic, lithostratigraphic, sedimentological, geochemical, oil industry and other data have been reviewed from the literature and re-presented to illustrate the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the plate. Key well logs, cross-sections, outcrop photos and other data are presented in full colour to illustrate the location and correlation of maximum flooding surfaces and unconformities. These key stratal surfaces allow an assessment of the geometric relationship between source rocks, reservoirs and seals.
The Arabian Plate contains two-thirds of the worlds oil reserves, and produces about one-third of daily world oil production. These figures are likely to rise in the future such that the Arabian Plate approaches 50% of daily world oil production. A modern interpretation of the stratigraphy producing this oil is thus of interest to global geoscience.

Authors: Peter R. Sharland, Raymond Archer, David M. Casey, Roger B. Davies, Stephen H. Hall, Alan P. Heward, Andrew D. Horbury, and Michael D. Simmons. 

372 pages, over 140 illustrations/photographs, nearly 1,000 references. 2001 
ISBN 9901-03-08-9

Published by:
Gulf PetroLink
P.O. Box 20393
Manama, Bahrain
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Website: www.gulfpetrolink.com
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Table of Contents:
8 Dedication
9 Acknowledgements
10 Preface
12 Summary

Chapter 1: Introduction
14 Introduction
14 Background to GeoArabia Special Publication 2
18 Tectonostratigraphy
18 Maximum Flooding Surfaces
19 A New Sequence Stratigraphic Nomenclature
19 Petroleum Geology
20-21 Tables: Arabian Plate Tectonostratigraphic Megasequences and Maximum Flooding Surfaces

Chapter 2: Methodology and Sequence Stratigraphy
23 Methodology
23 Literature Database
24 Identification of Maximum Flooding Surfaces
26 Dating of Maximum Flooding Surfaces
27 Biostratigraphy and Chronology
28 Limitations of the Biostratigraphic Literature
28 Geological Ages and Absolute Dates
30 Maximum Flooding Surfaces and Global Eustatic Curves
30 Sediment Systems and Examples of Maximum Flooding Surfaces
39 Sequence Stratigraphic Issues
40 The Strengths of Sequence Stratigraphy versus Lithostratigraphy
41 Sequence Definition
42 Controls on Relative Sea Level and Sediment Sequences
43 Driving Mechanism and Extent of Preservation of Maximum Flooding Surfaces
45 Subsidence History
45 Development of Accommodation Space
47 Sediment Layering
47 Eustacy and Forced Regressions
50 Transgressive Surfaces versus Maximum Flooding Surfaces
51 Uncertainties in Interpretation
51 Uncertainty in the Database
52 Uncertainty in the Chronological Timescale
52 Uncertainty in the Dating, Absolute Ages and Correlation of Maximum Flooding Surfaces
52 Uncertainty in Driving Mechanisms
53 Summary of Sequence Stratigraphic Considerations

Chapter 3: Tectonostratigraphic Megasequences
55 Introduction
60 Precambrian Basement Accretion (c. 715-c. 610 Ma)
62 Late Precambrian to Mid-Palaeozoic Intra-Cratonic Plate Setting
62 TMS AP1; late Precambrian to Early Cambrian (c. 610-520 Ma); Extension and Compression - Najd Rifting, Subsidence and Uplift
62 Definition
62 Plate Setting
66 Sequence Stratigraphy
67 Oil-Prone Source Rocks
68 TMS AP2; Early Cambrian to Late Ordovician (520-445 Ma); Extension, Subsidence and Mild Uplift
68 Definition
70 Plate Setting
70 Sequence Stratigraphy
72 Oil-Prone Source Rocks
73 TMS AP3; Late Ordovician to Late Devonian (445-364 Ma); Extension and Post-Glacial Subsidence
73 Definition
75 Plate Setting
78 Sequence Stratigraphy
79 Oil-Prone Source Rocks
80 Mid to Late Palaeozoic Back-Arc Plate Setting
80 TMS AP4; Late Devonian to Late Carboniferous (364-295 Ma); Extension and Compression - ‘Hercynian’ Back-Arc Rifting, Inversion and Uplift
80 Definition
82 Plate Setting
82 Sequence Stratigraphy
84 Oil-Prone Source Rocks
84 TMS AP5; Late Carboniferous to Mid-Permian (295-255 Ma); Extension - Post-‘Hercynian’ Continental Rifting and Spreading of ‘Cimmeria’
84 Definition
85 Plate Setting
89 Sequence Stratigraphy
90 Late Palaeozoic to Late Mesozoic Passive Margin Plate Setting
90 TMS AP6; Mid-Permian to Early Jurassic (255-182 Ma); Opening of Neo-Tethys, Northeast Extension and Passive Margin Post-Rift Thermal Subsidence
90 Definition
90 Plate Setting
94 Sequence Stratigraphy
96 Oil-Prone Source Rocks
97 TMS AP7; Early Jurassic to Late Jurassic (182-149 Ma); Opening of the Mediterranean Basin, Northern Extension and Passive Margin Post-Rift Thermal Subsidence
97 Definition
99 Plate Setting
99 Sequence Stratigraphy
102 Oil-Prone Source Rocks
103 TMS AP8; Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous (149-92 Ma); Opening of the Indian Ocean, Southern Extension and Passive Margin Post-Rift Thermal Subsidence
103 Definition
104 Plate Setting
106 Sequence Stratigraphy
109 Oil-Prone Source Rocks
111 Latest Mesozoic to Present Day Active Margin Plate Setting
111 TMS AP9; Late Cretaceous to Early Palaeogene (92-63 Ma); Compression and Ophiolite Obduction
111 Definition
112 Plate Setting
115 Sequence Stratigraphy
116 Oil-Prone Source Rocks
117 TMS AP10; Early Palaeogene to Latest Eocene (63-34 Ma); Mild Compression and Closure of Neo-Tethys
117 Definition
117 Plate Setting
120 Sequence Stratigraphy
121 Oil-Prone Source Rocks
121 TMS AP11; Latest Eocene to the Present (34-0 Ma); Western Extension (Gulf of Aden/Red Sea Spreading) and Eastern Compression (Collision with Eurasia and Zagros Inversion)
121 Definition
121 Plate Setting
124 Sequence Stratigraphy
125 Oil-Prone Source Rocks

Chapter 4: Maximum Flooding Surfaces
127 Introduction
127 Identification and Correlation of Maximum Flooding Surfaces
127 Late Precambrian to Mid-Palaeozoic Intra-Cratonic Plate Setting
127 Megasequence AP1; late Precambrian to Early Cambrian (c. 610-520 Ma)
127 MFS Pc10; Precambrian, Vendian, dated at 570 Ma
130 MFS Pc20; Precambrian, Late Vendian, dated at 550 Ma
132 MFS Cm10; Early Cambrian, dated at 540 Ma
134 Megasequence AP2; Early Cambrian to Late Ordovician (520-445 Ma)
134 MFS Cm20; Middle Cambrian, middle Menevian, dated at 510 Ma
140 MFS Cm30; Late Cambrian, early Dolgellian, dated at 502 Ma
142 MFS O10; Early Ordovician, early Tremadoc, dated at 494 Ma
143 MFS O20; Early Ordovician, late Tremadoc, dated at 487 Ma
144 MFS O30; Middle Ordovician, late Llanvirn, dated at 465 Ma
148 MFS O40, Late Ordovician, late Caradoc, dated at 453 Ma
150 Megasequence AP3; Late Ordovician to Late Devonian (445-364 Ma)
150 MFS S10; Early Silurian, mid-Aeronian, dated at 440 Ma
158 MFS S20; Late Silurian, late Pridoli, dated at 418 Ma
161 MFS D10; Early Devonian, late Praghian, dated at 402 Ma
163 MFS D20; Early Devonian, late? Emsian, dated at 393 Ma
165 Mid to Late Palaeozoic Back-Arc Plate Setting
165 Megasequence AP4; Late Devonian to Late Carboniferous (364-295 Ma)
165 MFS D30; Late Devonian, late Famennian, dated at 355 Ma
167 MFS C10; Early Carboniferous, late Visean, dated at 333 Ma
169 Megasequence AP5; Late Carboniferous to Mid-Permian (295-255 Ma)
169 MFS P10; Early Permian, late Sakmarian, dated at 272 Ma
174 Late Palaeozoic to Late Mesozoic Passive Margin Plate Setting
174 Megasequence AP6; Mid-Permian to Early Jurassic (255-182 Ma)
174 MFS P20; Late Permian, late Kazanian, dated at 252.5 Ma
179 MFS P30; Late Permian, late Tatarian, dated at 250 Ma
183 MFS P40; Late Permian, latest Tatarian, dated at 249 Ma
184 MFS Tr10; Early Triassic, Scythian, dated at 248 Ma
186 MFS Tr20; Early Triassic, Scythian, dated at 246 Ma
188 MFS Tr30; Early Triassic, mid-Scythian, dated at 245 Ma
192 MFS Tr40; Middle Triassic, Anisian, dated at 238 Ma
194 MFS Tr50; Middle Triassic, Ladinian, dated at 233 Ma
195 MFS Tr60; Late Triassic, Carnian, dated at 226 Ma
196 MFS Tr70; Late Triassic, Carnian, dated at 222 Ma
197 MFS Tr80; Late Triassic, Norian, dated at 215 Ma
199 MFS J10; Early Jurassic, middle Toarcian, dated at 185 Ma
205 Megasequence AP7; Early Jurassic to Late Jurassic (182-149 Ma)
205 MFS J20; Middle Jurassic, early Bajocian, dated at 175 Ma
207 MFS J30; Middle Jurassic, early Bathonian, dated at 168 Ma
210 MFS J40; Middle Jurassic, middle Callovian, dated at 162 Ma
216 MFS J50; Late Jurassic, middle Oxfordian, dated at 156 Ma
218 MFS J60; Late Jurassic, early Kimmeridgian, dated at 154 Ma
220 MFS J70; Late Jurassic, late Kimmeridgian, dated at 152.25 Ma
222 MFS J80; Late Jurassic, late Kimmeridgian, dated at 151.75 Ma
226 MFS J90; Late Jurassic, late Kimmeridgian, dated at 151.25 Ma
228 MFS J100; Late Jurassic, late Kimmeridgian, dated at 150.75 Ma
230 Megasequence AP8; Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous (149-92 Ma)
230 MFS J110; Late Jurassic, middle Tithonian, dated at 147 Ma
237 MFS K10; Early Cretaceous, early Berriasian, dated at 143 Ma
240 MFS K20; Early Cretaceous, late Berriasian, dated at 138 Ma
241 MFS K30; Early Cretaceous, early Valanginian, dated at 136 Ma
246 MFS K40; Early Cretaceous, late? Hauterivian, dated at 129 Ma
248 MFS K50; Early Cretaceous, early Barremian, dated at 126 Ma
249 MFS K60; Early Cretaceous, late Barremian, dated at 123 Ma
250 MFS K70; Early Cretaceous, early Aptian, dated at 120 Ma
254 MFS K80; Early Cretaceous, mid-Aptian, dated at 116 Ma
256 MFS K90; Early Cretaceous, early Albian, dated at 111 Ma
259 MFS K100; Early Cretaceous, middle Albian, dated at 106 Ma
263 MFS K110; Early Cretaceous, late Albian, dated at 101 Ma
265 MFS K120; Late Cretaceous, early Cenomanian, dated at 98 Ma
271 MFS K130; Late Cretaceous, middle Cenomanian, dated at 95 Ma
273 MFS K140; Late Cretaceous, early Turonian, dated at 93 Ma
275 Latest Mesozoic to Present Day Active Margin Setting of the Arabian Plate
275 Megasequence AP9; Late Cretaceous to Early Palaeogene (92-63 Ma)
275 MFS K150; Late Cretaceous, early Coniacian, dated at 88 Ma
277 MFS K160; Late Cretaceous, Santonian, dated at 85 Ma
279 MFS K170; Late Cretaceous, middle Campanian, dated at 78 Ma
282 MFS K180; Late Cretaceous, mid-Maastrichtian, dated at 68 Ma
286 Megasequence AP10; Early Palaeogene to Latest Eocene (63-34 Ma)
286 MFS Pg10; Palaeogene, late Palaeocene, dated at 58 Ma
290 MFS Pg20; Palaeogene, early Eocene, dated at 49 Ma
293 Megasequence AP11; Latest Eocene to Recent (34-0 Ma)
293 MFS Pg30; Palaeogene, early Oligocene, dated at 33 Ma
295 MFS Ng10; Neogene, early Miocene, dated at 23 Ma
298 MFS Ng20; Neogene, early Miocene, dated at 18 Ma
299 MFS Ng30; Neogene, middle Miocene, dated at 15 Ma
301 MFS Ng40; Neogene, middle Miocene, dated at 12 Ma

Chapter 5: Petroleum Prospectivity and Conclusions
303 Introduction
303 Petroleum Prospectivity
303 Oil-Prone Source Rocks
304 Reservoirs
305 Seals
305 Traps
308 Implications for Petroleum Prospectivity
309 Palaeogeographic Maps
317 Play Fairway Maps
317 Recommendations
317 Use of Sequence Stratigraphic Nomenclature
317 Refinement of Maximum Flooding Surfaces and Sequence Boundaries
318 Defining the Roles of Eustasy and Subsidence
318 Outstanding Technical Issues
320 Conclusions
323-362 Bibliography
363-368 Glossary
370-371 About the Authors

Enclosures
1: Tectonic Elements of the Arabian Plate
2: Chrono-sequence Stratigraphy of the Arabian Plate

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